Our partner hospitals remain at the forefront of quality and innovation in the field of Cardiac Surgery, being the centre of excellence for Valve repair, Open heart surgeries, Minimally Invasive Cardiac surgeries with Thoracoscopic Assistance, Beating Heart Coronary Bypass surgeries. Thousand of Cardiac operations have been performed successfully, including complex coronary angioplasty with the use of specialized techniques like rotablations, Intravascular ultrasounds, intravascular lithotripsy, Optical Coherent Tomographies, ECMOs, IABPs, iFR / FFR studies and also pioneering the first Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR), valve in valve & native valve replacements & implantations. Device closures in adults and paediatrics, ASD, VSD, PDA & coarctation stenting are additional few specialties of the Cardiology department at our partner hospitals.
FAQs on Cardiology & Cardio Vascular Thoracic Surgery
Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart-related diseases and conditions. It focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and valvular heart disease. Cardiologists are medical professionals who specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart-related diseases. They use various tools such as echocardiography, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and cardiac catheterization to evaluate heart function and diagnose heart conditions. Treatment options can include lifestyle changes, medication, and surgical interventions.
Cardiovascular thoracic surgery is a specialized branch of medicine that focuses on surgical procedures involving the heart, lungs, and other organs in the chest cavity. This type of surgery can include procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve replacement or repair, and surgical treatment of lung cancer or other conditions affecting the lungs. Cardiovascular thoracic surgeons are medical professionals who specialize in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of these conditions. These surgeons use specialized tools and techniques to perform delicate operations on the heart and lungs, such as minimally invasive techniques, robotic-assisted surgery, and open-heart surgery. The goal of cardiovascular thoracic surgery is to improve the overall health and function of the heart and lungs, allowing patients to live longer, healthier lives.
There are several common cardiovascular conditions that can affect the heart and blood vessels, including:
- Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition in which the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to a buildup of plaque.
- Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
- Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular pattern.
- Valvular heart disease: A condition in which the valves of the heart become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow.
- Congenital heart disease: A condition in which the heart and blood vessels do not develop normally before birth.
- Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): A condition in which the arteries that supply blood to the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked.
- Aortic aneurysm: A condition in which the wall of the aorta (the largest artery in the body) weakens and bulges, increasing the risk of rupture.
These conditions can have serious consequences if left untreated and may require medical management, lifestyle modifications, and in some cases, surgery. It’s important to consult a healthcare professional if you have any symptoms or concerns related to cardiovascular health.
There are several common cardiovascular surgical procedures that may be used to treat various heart and blood vessel conditions. Some of these procedures include:
- Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): A procedure in which a surgeon takes a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and grafts it onto a blocked or narrowed coronary artery to bypass the blockage and restore blood flow to the heart.
- Heart valve repair or replacement: A procedure in which a surgeon repairs or replaces a damaged or diseased heart valve to improve blood flow.
- Aortic aneurysm repair: A procedure in which a surgeon repairs a weakened or bulging section of the aorta to prevent the risk of rupture.
- Pacemaker implantation: A procedure in which a surgeon implants a small device in the chest to regulate the heart’s rhythm.
- Heart transplant: A procedure in which a surgeon replaces a patient’s diseased or damaged heart with a healthy donor heart.
- Lung cancer surgery: A procedure in which a surgeon removes a tumor or cancerous tissue from the lung.
- Endarterectomy: A procedure in which a surgeon removes plaque or fatty deposits from the inside of an artery to improve blood flow.
These procedures can be complex and may require significant recovery time. It’s important to discuss the risks and benefits of any surgical procedure with a healthcare professional before deciding on a treatment plan.
If you are experiencing symptoms related to heart or blood vessel health, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional. Your primary care physician may refer you to a cardiologist, who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart-related conditions.
If you have been diagnosed with a heart or lung condition that requires surgical treatment, your cardiologist may refer you to a cardiovascular thoracic surgeon. This type of surgeon specializes in performing surgical procedures involving the heart, lungs, and other organs in the chest cavity.
If you are unsure whether you need to see a cardiologist or a cardiovascular thoracic surgeon, it’s best to consult with your primary care physician. They can help determine which type of specialist is best suited to your individual needs and may refer you to a specialist for further evaluation or treatment.
Like any surgical procedure, cardiovascular surgery comes with a certain amount of risk. The specific risks will depend on the type of surgery being performed, the patient’s overall health, and other factors. However, some common risks associated with cardiovascular surgery include:
- Bleeding: Cardiovascular surgery can involve significant blood loss, which may require a blood transfusion.
- Infection: Surgery of any kind carries a risk of infection, which can be serious and potentially life-threatening.
- Blood clots: Surgery can increase the risk of blood clots, which can lead to stroke or other serious complications.
- Reaction to anesthesia: Some patients may experience an adverse reaction to anesthesia, which can cause complications during or after surgery.
- Lung problems: Surgery involving the chest can increase the risk of lung problems, such as pneumonia or fluid accumulation in the lungs.
- Kidney problems: Some patients may experience kidney problems after cardiovascular surgery, particularly if they have pre-existing kidney disease.
- Heart attack or stroke: While rare, cardiovascular surgery can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke, particularly in patients with pre-existing heart disease.
While these risks are serious, it’s important to note that many cardiovascular surgeries are successful and lead to improved quality of life. It’s important to discuss the risks and benefits of any surgical procedure with a healthcare professional before making a decision.
The duration of a cardiovascular surgery can vary widely depending on the type of procedure being performed and the complexity of the patient’s condition. Some surgeries may take just a few hours, while others may require several hours or even multiple procedures.
For example, a heart valve repair or replacement surgery typically takes 2-4 hours, while a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery can take 3-6 hours or longer. Procedures such as a heart transplant or lung cancer surgery may take even longer.
In addition to the time spent in surgery, patients will also need to spend time in the recovery room and in the hospital for post-operative care. Recovery time can vary depending on the patient’s overall health and the type of procedure performed.
It’s important to discuss the expected duration of the surgery and recovery time with your healthcare professional prior to the procedure so that you can plan accordingly.
Cardiovascular surgery, like any surgery, can cause some pain and discomfort during and after the procedure. However, there are many options available to manage pain and make the recovery process as comfortable as possible.
During the surgery itself, patients will be under general anesthesia and will not feel any pain. After the surgery, patients may experience some discomfort, particularly around the incision site. Pain management options may include medications, such as opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as non-medication options such as ice packs, heating pads, or relaxation techniques.
It’s important for patients to communicate any pain or discomfort to their healthcare team so that appropriate pain management strategies can be used. In addition, patients should follow their healthcare team’s instructions for pain management, as well as any other post-operative care instructions, to help minimize pain and speed up the recovery process.
The recovery time for cardiovascular surgery can vary widely depending on the type of procedure performed, the patient’s overall health, and other factors. In general, patients can expect to spend several days to several weeks in the hospital after the surgery, followed by several weeks or even months of recovery at home.
During the hospital stay, patients will be closely monitored by healthcare professionals to ensure that they are healing properly and to manage any post-operative complications. Patients may need to take medications, such as blood thinners or pain relievers, and will likely need to engage in physical therapy or other rehabilitation activities.
After leaving the hospital, patients will need to follow a prescribed program of activity and rest. They may need to avoid certain activities or strenuous exercise until they are fully healed. It’s important to follow the healthcare team’s instructions for recovery to ensure the best possible outcome.
The length of recovery time can vary widely depending on the type of procedure performed and the patient’s overall health. In general, however, patients can expect to take several weeks to several months to fully recover from cardiovascular surgery. It’s important to stay in communication with the healthcare team throughout the recovery process to ensure that any complications or concerns are addressed promptly.
Yes, it is likely that patients will need to have follow-up appointments after cardiovascular surgery. The exact frequency and duration of follow-up appointments will depend on the type of procedure performed and the patient’s overall health, but patients can expect to have several appointments over the weeks and months following the surgery.
During these appointments, healthcare professionals will monitor the patient’s recovery, assess the effectiveness of any medications or rehabilitation activities, and identify any potential complications or issues. Patients may need to have blood tests, imaging studies, or other diagnostic tests performed during these appointments.
It’s important to attend all scheduled follow-up appointments to ensure that any issues are identified and addressed promptly. Patients should also communicate with their healthcare team if they experience any new symptoms or concerns between appointments.
In addition to medical follow-up appointments, patients may also need to make lifestyle changes to promote a healthy recovery after cardiovascular surgery. This may include changes to diet, exercise, and stress management. The healthcare team can provide guidance and resources to help patients make these changes and maintain a healthy lifestyle after surgery.
In some cases, cardiovascular surgery may be performed on an outpatient basis, but this depends on the type of procedure being performed and the overall health of the patient. Outpatient surgery, also known as same-day surgery or ambulatory surgery, means that the patient is able to go home on the same day as the surgery.
Some less invasive cardiovascular procedures, such as cardiac catheterization or certain types of pacemaker implantation, can be performed on an outpatient basis. However, more complex procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or heart valve replacement generally require an inpatient stay in the hospital.
In addition to the type of procedure, the patient’s overall health and medical history will also be taken into account when deciding whether or not outpatient surgery is appropriate. Patients who have other health conditions that may increase the risk of complications or who require additional monitoring after the surgery may not be candidates for outpatient surgery.
The healthcare team will work with the patient to determine the most appropriate setting for the surgery and will provide guidance on post-operative care and follow-up appointments regardless of whether the surgery is done on an outpatient or inpatient basis.
The type of anesthesia used for cardiovascular surgery can vary depending on the type of procedure being performed and the patient’s overall health. In general, anesthesia is used to ensure that the patient is unconscious and pain-free during the surgery.
There are several types of anesthesia that may be used for cardiovascular surgery, including general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and local anesthesia. General anesthesia involves the use of medications to render the patient completely unconscious and unable to feel any pain or discomfort during the surgery. Regional anesthesia involves the injection of a local anesthetic into a specific area of the body to numb the nerves and block pain sensation. Local anesthesia involves the injection of a local anesthetic into a specific area of the body to numb the nerves and block pain sensation.
The choice of anesthesia will depend on the type and duration of the surgery, the patient’s overall health, and the preferences of the patient and the healthcare team. The anesthesiologist will work closely with the patient and the surgeon to determine the most appropriate type of anesthesia for the individual case.
It’s important for patients to discuss any concerns or questions they have about anesthesia with their healthcare team prior to the surgery. The healthcare team can provide guidance on what to expect during the anesthesia process and can address any questions or concerns the patient may have.
No, patients are typically not awake during cardiovascular surgery. The use of anesthesia is common during cardiovascular surgery to ensure that the patient is unconscious and pain-free during the procedure.
While there are some types of procedures that may be performed under conscious sedation, such as certain types of pacemaker implantation or cardiac catheterization, most cardiovascular surgeries require general anesthesia. This means that the patient will be completely unconscious and unaware of the procedure.
It’s important for patients to discuss any concerns or questions they have about the anesthesia process with their healthcare team prior to the surgery. The healthcare team can provide guidance on what to expect during the anesthesia process and can address any questions or concerns the patient may have.
Yes, robotic-assisted cardiovascular surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery that uses a robotic system to perform the procedure. The robotic system is controlled by the surgeon, who operates the system from a console in the operating room.
During robotic-assisted surgery, small incisions are made in the chest, and a miniature camera and surgical instruments are inserted through the incisions. The robotic system provides the surgeon with a three-dimensional view of the surgical site and allows for greater precision and control of the surgical instruments.
Robotic-assisted surgery is used for a variety of cardiovascular procedures, including mitral valve repair, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and atrial septal defect repair. The use of robotic-assisted surgery may result in smaller incisions, less blood loss, and a faster recovery time compared to traditional open-heart surgery.
However, not all patients are candidates for robotic-assisted surgery, and the decision to use this approach will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient’s overall health, the type of procedure being performed, and the surgeon’s experience with the robotic system. The healthcare team will work with the patient to determine the most appropriate approach to the surgery.
During an initial consultation with a cardiologist or cardiovascular thoracic surgeon, patients can expect to undergo a comprehensive medical evaluation that will help the healthcare team determine the appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.
The evaluation may include a review of the patient’s medical history, a physical examination, and diagnostic tests, such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or cardiac catheterization.
The healthcare team will also ask the patient about any symptoms or concerns they may have, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fatigue. The healthcare team will use this information to help guide the diagnostic process and develop a treatment plan that is tailored to the individual patient’s needs.
During the consultation, patients are encouraged to ask questions and discuss any concerns they may have with the healthcare team. It’s important for patients to be open and honest with their healthcare team about their symptoms and medical history, as this will help the team develop an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
After the consultation, the healthcare team will discuss the results of the evaluation with the patient and provide guidance on any necessary next steps, such as further diagnostic testing or treatment options.
The length of hospital stay after cardiovascular surgery can vary depending on the type of procedure performed, as well as the patient’s overall health and recovery progress.
In general, patients who undergo open-heart surgery, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement surgery, may need to stay in the hospital for several days to a week or longer. During this time, the healthcare team will monitor the patient’s vital signs, administer pain medications, and provide physical therapy to help the patient regain strength and mobility.
Patients who undergo minimally invasive procedures, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), may have a shorter hospital stay and may be discharged within a few days.
Following discharge from the hospital, patients may need to continue with a rehabilitation program to help them regain strength and mobility. The length of the rehabilitation program will vary depending on the patient’s individual needs and recovery progress.
It’s important for patients to follow their healthcare team’s instructions carefully after cardiovascular surgery and to attend all follow-up appointments to ensure the best possible outcome.
The timeline for returning to work after cardiovascular surgery can vary depending on the type of procedure performed, as well as the patient’s overall health and recovery progress.
In general, patients who undergo open-heart surgery, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement surgery, may need to take several weeks or even months off from work to allow for proper recovery. During this time, patients are encouraged to rest and avoid activities that may put stress on the healing incision site.
Patients who undergo minimally invasive procedures, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), may have a shorter recovery period and may be able to return to work within a few weeks.
The healthcare team will provide guidance on when it is safe for the patient to return to work based on their individual recovery progress. It’s important for patients to follow their healthcare team’s instructions carefully and to avoid returning to work too soon, as this can slow down the recovery process and increase the risk of complications.
It’s also important for patients to discuss any concerns they may have about returning to work with their healthcare team, as they can provide guidance on how to safely resume work activities.
The cost of cardiovascular surgery in India can vary depending on the type of procedure performed, the hospital or clinic where it is performed, and the patient’s individual needs and health condition.
In general, open-heart surgery, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement surgery, can range from approximately Rs. 2-6 lakhs or more, depending on the complexity of the procedure and other factors.
Minimally invasive procedures, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), may have a lower cost, ranging from approximately Rs. 1-3 lakhs or more.
It’s important for patients to discuss the cost of the procedure with their healthcare provider or the hospital or clinic where it will be performed. Many hospitals and clinics offer financing options or payment plans to help make the cost of treatment more manageable for patients.
It’s also important for patients to consider the quality of care and expertise of the healthcare providers when making decisions about cardiovascular surgery, rather than solely focusing on the cost.
Making lifestyle changes can be an effective way to improve cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of heart disease. Some lifestyle changes that may help include:
- Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium, and high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
- Engaging in regular physical activity, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling, for at least 30 minutes a day, most days of the week.
- Maintaining a healthy weight through a combination of healthy eating habits and regular exercise.
- Avoiding or quitting smoking and using tobacco products, as they can significantly increase the risk of heart disease.
- Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing, or yoga, and getting adequate sleep each night.
- Limiting alcohol consumption to moderate levels, which is generally defined as no more than one drink per day for women and no more than two drinks per day for men.
It’s important to consult with a healthcare provider before making significant lifestyle changes, especially if there are underlying health conditions or concerns. A healthcare provider can provide guidance on the best approach to making lifestyle changes and can offer support and resources to help patients achieve their goals.
As with any surgical procedure, there are potential risks and complications associated with cardiovascular surgery. Some potential complications include:
- Infection: Infection is a common risk associated with any surgical procedure. Patients may receive antibiotics before and after the surgery to reduce the risk of infection.
- Bleeding: There may be some bleeding during and after the surgery. Patients may require blood transfusions or other interventions to manage bleeding.
- Blood clots: Blood clots can form in the veins of the legs or lungs after surgery, which can be life-threatening. Patients may receive blood thinners or other medications to reduce the risk of blood clots.
- Arrhythmias: Arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, can occur after cardiovascular surgery. Patients may need medication or other interventions to manage these arrhythmias.
- Heart attack or stroke: There is a risk of heart attack or stroke during or after cardiovascular surgery, especially in patients with underlying heart disease or other risk factors.
- Kidney problems: Some patients may experience kidney problems after cardiovascular surgery. This may be due to decreased blood flow to the kidneys during the surgery or as a side effect of medications used during the surgery.
- Lung problems: Some patients may experience lung problems after cardiovascular surgery, such as pneumonia or fluid buildup in the lungs.
It’s important for patients to discuss the potential risks and complications of cardiovascular surgery with their healthcare provider before the procedure. The healthcare provider can provide guidance on how to manage and minimize these risks and can provide support and resources to help patients recover from the surgery.